Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: properties, classification and applications
We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in [A. Gonz\'alez-L\'opez, N. Kamran and P.J. Olver, Proc. London Math. Soc. 64, 339 (1992)] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. Moreover, by determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. In particular, the Milne-Pinney, second-order Kummer-Schwarz, complex Riccati and Buchdahl equations as well as some Lotka-Volterra and nonlinear biomathematical models are analysed from this Lie-Hamilton approach.